A news website produced by students of A.P. Giannini Middle School
By Martin Lew
The tardigrade are water creatures that have eight legs and are microscopic creatures. They were named by Johann August Ephraim Goeze in 1773 who thought they looked like “little water bears”. The name Tardigrada was given in 1777 by Lazzaro Spallanzani. They are really tough. For example, they were known to survive space, extreme temperature, and radiation. They can even withstand six times the depth of the Mariana Trench, a trench that is 36,000 feet underwater! There is almost impossibly no way for you to “kill” a tardigrade because no matter what you do, it will just wiggle back to life. You can find them in moss, ferns, liches, soil, beaches, dunes and any other damp, moist habitat. We have swallowed tardigrades that were on fresh produce or in water. The only thing that it can’t survive is your digestive system. They can’t survive because the stomach is an acidic environment.
By Ishaan Bhattacharya
Welcome back to the Giannini Politics Update. Today’s topic of discussion is the recent seizure of the Deep Dot Web by the Federal Bureau of Investigation(FBI).
The FBI detained several individuals suspected of involvement in the facilitation of the Deep Dot Web, a website capable of expediting access to dark web sites and marketplaces. That report stated that the website “facilitated the purchase of weapons, drugs and other contraband” including stolen credit card information. The website’s seizure was the fifth major darknet bust in six weeks, and was perhaps the preeminent bust of them all. The Deep Dot Web was believed to have made over 8,000 Bitcoin (equivalent to $63,947,120). “This site has been seized,” reads a notice on the site’s homepage at press time. The site is inaccessible beyond this notice, due to the FBI’s bust.
By: Aiden Shiu
In physics, potential energy is stored energy of position. In other words, it is the energy held by an object because of its position relative to other objects. For example, imagine a bow. When the bow is drawn, it can store energy based on position (potential energy). When it isn’t drawn, there is no stored energy in the bow. This stored energy of position (from drawn to not drawn) is what we refer to as “potential energy.” Another example of potential energy would be a coiled spring. When the spring is pressed down, it has stored energy and therefore potential energy. When it is in its usual position, it has no stored energy and therefore no potential energy.
There are many different types of potential energy. Among the most common, there is gravitational potential energy. This type of potential energy takes the same concept of potential energy but incorporates the force of gravity (usually attraction of the Earth). Gravitational potential energy is stored energy of an object based on its vertical position (height). In other words, it is the potential energy of an object based on mass in relation to another massive body (usually a planet) due to gravitational force. When gravity pulls the object downwards, it creates stored energy in the object which we can call potential energy. The amount of gravitational potential energy depends on two factors, the height in which the object is raised and the mass of the object. The greater the object is raised, or the greater the mass of the object, the greater the gravitational potential energy will be.
Another common type of potential energy is elastic potential energy. Elastic potential energy refers to the stored energy held inside elastic materials resulted by their stretching and compressing. Examples would include trampolines, rubber bands, etc. All these have elastic potential energy because of their stretching and compressing. Even the examples in the beginning paragraph (the bow and the coiled spring) count as forms of elastic potential energy. Both can stretch and compress. An object possesses elastic potential energy if it is an elastic material at a position other than the equilibrium position (meaning either it’s stretched or compressed).
The last type of potential energy I will be discussing is electric potential energy. Electric potential energy is the configuration of a certain set of charges within a defined physical system. In other words, a charge exerts a force on any other charge allowing the rise of potential energy. This stored energy is dependant on two key factors, the charge of the object and its relative position to other charged objects (along with those object’s charges). For example, imagine a positive charge fixed to a point in space, and another positive charge was brought close to it. Their positions have a repulsive effect and therefore potential energy.
Note: There are equations you can use to find the potential energies of objects.
By Eva Ciobanu
The end of the school year is a time all students, teachers, and school staff members, enjoy. However, people working other jobs, such as our parents, don’t get the pleasure of eleven weeks off; they likely don’t enjoy having to worry about what their kid will do all day while they’re at work.
Now, when I first came to APG, I expected summer break to start with a scene straight out of High School Musical; the classic dance with every student meticulously in unison. If this is what you think is going to happen, you might want to lower your expectations, just a bit.
Not only are the actual last days of school boring, but from April 15 to May 17, students from each grade are taking the SBAC; aka the end of the year assessments that everyone grades 3-8 goes through. These tests are especially important for seventh graders wanting to attend Lowell High School after eighth grade.
Luckily, after finishing the SBAC, students are able to take it easy, and enjoy the summer awaiting. Of course, teachers won’t just completely give up, there still will be tests and homework; but for some classes, teachers may play movies, have parties to celebrate, or go on field trips. As the days tick down, everyone is making sure they enjoy these last few days.
If you’re an eighth grader, you will have the delight of not only graduating, but going to Great America. But, no need to get jealous, if you’re not in eighth grade yet, you’ll get your turn, every year the trip for the graduates alternates between Six Flags and Great America.
One thing is for sure, everyone enjoys the long days of summer, whether they’re spent in Hawaii, or in the comforts of your home; this break off of school brings everyone joy.
By Maya Wakabayashi and Zoe Avent
As you may have seen in the interesting food from Asia, food is a big part of the human community. One way to identify places is by their food. In this case, we are going to show you some interesting food from Europe. Also beware, you may be very grossed out.
Haggis is a Scottish dish that is made with the entrails of sheep's or calf’s internal organs mixed with suet, oatmeal and a unique seasoning made by boiling spices in a bag.
This Icelandic dish is made of the Greenland shark and is preserved by a process using a particular technique that includes the shark being hung for four to five months.
Surstromming is swedish for sour herring. Many say the salted, fermented Baltic sea herring is the worst taste you can possibly imagine. Even worse than Sardines! They are “swimming” in grey water from the Baltic North of the “Kalmar Strait”.
France-Escargots à la Bourguignonne
The French Escargots à la Bourguignonne is made by cooking a snail in a special sauce made with white wine, garlic and butter. Parsley is put into the shells. Many say the Escargots à la Bourguignonne has the consistency of clams and are rubbery to some people.
Norway and Iceland-Whale
The whale is consumed in many other countries such as Japan, Canada, Greenland, and even the USA. These countries consume the muscles, the organs, and the fat of the whale.
Also known as ”rotten cheese” this dish is made from Pecorino,
(sheep milk cheese) which has gone bad.
England (UK)-Stargazey Pie
This Cornish dish is made with potatoes, eggs and baked fish. The heads are cut off and put into the pie, facing outwards, right before baking. There are a few varieties on different ways to use the fish heads, but the heads sticking out is the traditional way.
Squeaky cheese is the name for new mild cheddar cheese. These are also known as cheese curds. It is said to squeak in it’s own way when you chew on it. And as a matter of fact, it does.
BONUS INFORMATION: PART 5
DAILY LIFE DURING THE WAR
During the Revolutionary War, many people had small homes, and only the wealthy had two story houses. Not many kids went to school, and when they did, they were typically ages 6-8. The people wore hand-sewn clothes, and women had to wear something different. Women had to wear things, such as petticoats, gowns, and skirts. They had to eat vegetables they grew themselves and animals they hunted in the places nearby.
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
You probably have heard of the Declaration of Independence. It was adopted at a meeting that was held in the Pennsylvania State House by the Second Continental Congress. It was signed by some of the Founding Fathers and the Representatives from each of the thirteen colonies, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Massachusetts Bay, North Carolina, South Carolina, Delaware, and Georgia.
TREATY OF PARIS 1763
Essentially, the Treaty of Paris finished off the French and Indian War, also known as the Seven Years’ War between Britain and France. The French stopped all threatening foreign military by giving up all their boundaries in mainland North America.
FOUNDING FATHERS OF AMERICA
The Founding Fathers were a bunch of philosophers, politicians, and writers that actually led the Revolution. Most of them had ancestors that had settled in the Thirteen Colonies.
George Washington was born on February 22, 1732. He was born to Augustine Washington and Mary Ball Washington. As you may have known, he was the first President of the United States. Washington contributed to the American Revolution greatly, as he was a general, commander-in-chief. Washington was elected as the general on June 15, 1775. His role as a general helped prepare battles and make battle plans and strategies. After he lived a long and successful life, he passed away on March 4, 1797.
By: Aiden Shiu
Isaac Newton conceived a thought experiment, Newton’s Cannon. Imagine a cannon firing a cannonball horizontally from a high mountain. When the ball is fired, the forces of air resistance and gravity will act upon it, and its vertical position will drop (still being pushed forward by the initial cannon fire). Newton said that if the speed of the cannonball is too low, it’ll simply fall to the ground. If the speed of the cannonball is too high (being higher than Earth’s escape velocity) then it’ll leave Earth’s orbit. However, if the velocity of the cannonball was high enough so that it wouldn’t fall at a rate matching the bend of the Earth, it would circle the globe parallel to the ground as it curves out from under it due to the force of gravity. It would eventually make its way back to the original cannon’s position.
This thought experiment helped Newton realize that the moon was in a similar situation, and helped influence his Universal Law of Gravitation. For example, the moon is constantly falling into the Earth’s center. Though the rate of its fall was matched by the curvature of its orbit and therefore has what we know as the moon orbiting around the Earth. This orbit is a result of the tangential velocity and acceleration due to the force of gravity (of the Earth). It orbits Earth in a circular motion just like how when Newton’s cannon fired the cannonball, it made a circular orbit around the Earth.
In this image, points A and B didn’t have enough initial velocity from the cannon to get out of Earth’s escape velocity. In point E, it had too much energy and left Earth’s orbit entirely. In point D, it was able to go around the Earth in an orbit, though it was shot with too much energy and will eventually fall back to Earth. In point C, its rate of fall matches the Earth’s curvature orbit and therefore orbits in a circle around the body. Point C could also demonstrate the moon (granted it would have to be further away from Earth) showing the same concepts the cannonball follows when it comes to Earth’s gravity and the velocity of certain moving objects.
By Alexander Zlatev
The school news website is created by the Journalism Club during Wednesday mornings located in room 211. In the Journalism Club, you can do whatever you like as long as it's appropriate and you’re writing. You can make a quiz or review, and if you join the club you can look at exclusive writings and the progress in stories/reviews.
Joining the club is as simple as walking in, signing in, then finding a computer. You can leave anytime and you can come anytime, between 9:00 AM and at 9:45 AM on Wednesday mornings. If you don't want to join but you want to read our articles, you can just go to https://www.thegianninibeacongazette.com which you’re probably doing since you’ve read this far.
In my experience the place is very fun as there is always something going on.I do enjoy reading other’s riddles and quizzes. If you come you would most likely enjoy it, and if you don’t like it, you’ll grow to like it, and if you REALLY don't like it, just go to the yard.
I hope that this little article makes you consider joining the Journalism Club, it looks good on your high school application, and you can also get service hours, and it’s just fun to write, play games, and make new friends.
BATTLES IN THE 1780’S: PART 4
BATTLE OF KINGS MOUNTAIN
The Battle of Kings Mountain took place in South Carolina on October 7, 1780. It is an iconic part of the Revolutionary War because it was known as the biggest “All-American Fight” between the Loyalists and the Patriots. The Patriots eventually retreated because they did not want to face Lord Cornwallis’s army. They did, as a matter of fact, capture some of the Loyalists and executed them as prisoners. Soon enough, the Patriots won the battle, and it made the Patriots feel a lot more confident after they had been defeated in many battles before.
BATTLE OF COWPENS
The Battle of Cowpens happened on January 17, 1781. As a matter of fact, it didn’t take place in Cowpens, but a neighboring location, Cherokee County. The British army (lead by Soldier Daniel Morgan) captured much of the South Continental army in South Carolina, and that gave them more confidence. George Washington sent General Greene to command them. Greene split the army in half and sent Tarleton, a British soldier who helped the colonists for many years, to block Morgan’s actions. When Tarleton drew close, Morgan retreated, leaving the Americans in victory.
BATTLE OF YORKTOWN
The Battle of Yorktown (also known as the Siege of Yorktown) happened from September 28 to October 19, 1781. The Americans and the French worked together to gain a victory, and in the end, a victory was what they received. This battle was any regular battle, but it affected many things.
By Ishaan Bhattacharya
Welcome back to the Giannini Politics Update! Today, the topic of discussion is the investigation constructed by special counsel Robert Mueller.
The Special Counsel Investigation, also known as the Mueller investigation, was a United States Law Enforcement Investigation of any attempts by the Russian Government to influence or interfere with the U.S. Presidential Election. The investigation’s purview included the allegation that there was association or coordination between Donald Trump's 2016 presidential campaign and the Russian government, and was led by special counsel Robert Mueller. The general results of the investigation were explained by Attorney General William Barr who told Congress that Mueller's office didn't establish a conspiracy between Trump's campaign and Russian interference in the 2016 election, nor did it establish that Trump obstructed justice according to a summary of the investigation submitted by Barr. He assessed the results of the investigation further and in more detail via a 400-page document written to Congress. Although Barr stated that he detected no interference in the election, in a recent testimony before Congress, Barr said that the U.S. government spied on the Trump campaign, and that he would investigate further violation of any rules. This means that Barr will analyze possible contraventions by American intelligence agencies. Barr has been one of the few people who has had access to the results of the investigation. As a result, knowledge of the general public is based on Barr's summary.
The Giannini Beacon Gazette is a news site created by the Journalism Club students of A.P. Giannini Middle School and sponsored by Sunset Neighborhood Beacon Center (SNBC).